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Susky PFBC Q & A

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From Delaware Co.
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Heres a good read. All about the SM population in the Susky
« on: August 06, 2008, 03:45:54 PM »

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Q: What’s going on with smallmouth bass fishing in the Susquehanna River? I’m not catching as many fish as I did a few years ago.
A: The Susquehanna River system is the largest in Pennsylvania. It includes the Susquehanna River North Branch, the West Branch Susquehanna River, the Juniata River and the main stem Susquehanna River. The river drainage includes some 27,500 square miles, covering nearly half of the land area of Pennsylvania. In a system this large, any number of factors can influence fish populations in different ways at various locations. As a general observation, however, Fish and Boat Commission monitoring has shown that since 2000, production of young smallmouth bass (Young of the Year or YOY) has been near or below the long term average within the drainage. Not all rivers within the drainage have exhibited the same trends but the mainstem, extending from Sunbury to the Maryland state line, has exhibited densities which have been below average. This section of the river has been a recent focus of Fish and Boat Commission attention as a result.

Q: What do YOY numbers mean in terms of adult fish?

A: As you might expect, there is a relationship between the number of young smallmouth bass entering the overall population and the total number of adult smallmouth bass available to anglers down the road. It’s not a perfect correlation, however, as numerous other factors such as habitat, water quality, predation and disease influence survival of young until they reach legal size . But its fair to say that in general a weak year class usually means fewer adult fish 3 to 5 years later. String together a series of weak year classes and anglers begin to notice their catch going down.

Q: My fishing isn’t completely horrible though. Although my overall numbers are definitely lower, the fish I am catching are very nice. In fact, most of the smallies I’m catching are large fish.

A: That’s not surprising. In 1999, there was a terrific year class throughout the Susquehanna. The fish from that year class are still part of the overall smallmouth population and, although lower in density, fish from other year classes are present as well. A typical Susquehanna smallmouth bass is 15 inches at age six. So those big fish you’re landing are indeed older fish.

In order for a fishery to remain attractive over time, a mix of large older fish and small, younger fish are typically present. The agency has focused attention on monitoring both the abundance of young smallmouth bass and abundance of all size classes of smallmouth bass. We are working on identifying those elements that limit production of young smallmouth bass.

Q: So the fishing I’m experiencing now is related to things that happened in the river several years ago?

A: Very much so. Typically there are fluctuations between weak and strong year classes that average each other out. Successive strong year classes can produce periods where lots of adult bass are available to anglers. The opposite is true when you have an extended period with relatively weak year classes. This downturn in lower Susquehanna bass abundance was predicted by PFBC biologists based upon the results of their annual year class monitoring results.

As mentioned before, there are other factors involved as well - fish health, predation and angler harvest are others. Because a large section of the Susquehanna River already has very conservative “Big Bass” regulations in place, angling is not believed to be a significant influence. No harvest is allowed for a two-month period that covers the bulk of the spawn and only two fish that are 18 inches or larger are allowed to be creeled for the majority of the year. Up to four fish of 15 inches or greater may be taken three months of the year at a time when other waters allow up to six bass of 12 inches or larger to be harvested. Young of the year recruitment is a much more important part of the equation than harvest of adult bass in establishment of the total population size in the river because of these conservative regulations and the trend towards catch and release angling in recent years.

Q: Well, what factors determine how many YOY there are?

A: Many things influence production and density of young smallmouth bass in a population. In Pennsylvania and elsewhere, research indicates that flow is a particularly important factor in determining year class strength in rivers and streams. Spawning male bass need to choose good nesting habitat. Ideal smallmouth bass nest habitat includes shallows, backwaters and warm sloughs. The substrate should include clean stone, rock or gravel (about the size of marbles or golf balls— but no larger). There should be adequate cover (depth of water or vegetation) and refuge from the current. Ideal nest locations are those with the right combinations of bottom type, cover and current.

High river flow and turbid conditions limit ideal habitat or make some habitat unsuitable because of faster currents. These difficult conditions force the bass to select poor or less-than ideal habitat for nest construction. Less-than-ideal nesting habitat can reduce the number of eggs or fry that survive.

Additionally, young smallmouth bass typically occupy near-shore shallow waters. These areas may face extremes in temperature and suffer from low dissolved oxygen during summer, when flows are reduced to near drought conditions.

Q: Has the Commission found weak year classes everywhere in the Susquehanna basin?

A: No. There is a great deal of variability in year classes from one river to another within the basin. At the same time that we’ve documented poor year classes in some rivers, we’ve recorded strong year classes in others. This is true at different locations within the same waterway as well. For example: survey work in 2007 indicates strong year classes in the West and North Branches of the Susquehanna. However, on the “main stem” (the section of the river from Sunbury downstream to the Maryland line) our biologists are seeing a relatively weak year class . The Juniata River is exhibiting a year class of about average density.

Unfortunately, the main stem Susquehanna River has exhibited YOY densities lower than the long-term average in the majority of the years since 2000. This is a concern to the Fish and Boat Commission and anglers because the affected area has historically been one of the most popular and highly-regarded smallmouth destinations in the nation.

Q: What’s unique about the main stem Susquehanna that is responsible for this period of poor reproduction? Haven’t there been reports of diseased fish in this river as well?

A: There is no simple answer. Spring and early summer flow patterns have definitely been a factor for the reasons previously explained. But that explanation alone doesn’t cover it. For instance, in 2005 a relatively dry spring resulted in an above-average year class, but Commission biologists and anglers noticed unusual disease and mortality affecting young bass at various locations throughout the Susquehanna and its largest tributary, the Juniata River, during the summer. Sick and dying young bass were observed to have unsightly skin lesions.

Examinations of afflicted fish revealed that an infectious bacterium was responsible for the skin condition and for the mortalities. The bacterium, Flavobacterium columnare (columnaris), is a common soil and water bacterium. While harmless to humans, columnaris can infect all species of freshwater fish. Columnaris disease is a secondary infection brought on by environmental or nutritional factors that stress fish. Reports of diseased fish largely disappeared the next year, but in 2007 biologists and anglers once again noticed outbreaks. Add to these the presence of what appear to be increasing predator populations of flathead catfish and cormorants, identifying a cause for declines in smallmouth bass abundance becomes much more complex.

Q: If this bacterium is common, why aren’t there outbreaks all the time?

A: Fish health can be impacted by a combination of environmental and other factors that do not individually cause significant problems, but collectively are sufficiently stressful to cause disease. Columnaris disease is a secondary infection brought on by environmental or nutritional factors that stress fish. Unusually high temperatures coupled with low dissolved oxygen levels in the water are believed to have played a major role in the outbreaks. River conditions (low flow, warm temperatures) in 2005 and 2007 show similarities. Other water quality issues and other fish diseases may have stressed fish as well, weakening their ability to fight off columnaris disease.

Q: Does all this mean the Susquehanna is no longer the world-class smallmouth bass fishery it once was?

A: To write off Susquehanna smallmouth as a quality fishing experience is an over-reaction. But certainly most anglers agree that it’s been better in the recent past. Unfortunately, most indicators suggest that the next few years will continue to see anglers catching fewer fish than they would prefer and have become accustomed to. Just as it took several years of poor year classes to show up in decreasing catches, it will take a period of above-average reproductive success to swing the pendulum the other way.

Q: The Commission is supposed to be managing the fishery. Why hasn’t it done anything to prevent this down turn?

A: Actually the Commission has devoted a great deal of attention to this issue. Extensive data was gathered by several agencies, including the PFBC, in 2005 on a variety of factorsl smallmouth bass density, disease incidence, water quality, water quantity),. These factors are all suspected of playing a role in influencing the abundance of young smallmouth bass. In January of 2006, the Commission hosted a special public Susquehanna Smallmouth Bass Symposium. At this day-long event, reports from Commission staff and partner agencies like the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, the Susquehanna River Basin Commission and the United State Geologic Survey provided information on the “state of the river” with the public.

We plan to continue to work with those partners and others to explore the relationships between things like river flowand the consumptive use of water in the basin by industry. Correlations between these and additional potential influences are being evaluated. The Commission intends to offer another Susquehanna Symposium in 2008 to share what is learned and what is still unknown.

At the 2006 symposium, the Commission pledged to devote additional resources to better our understanding of the recreational fishery use of the mainstem Susquehanna River and the Juniata River. A large-scale study costing more than $300,000 began in the spring of 2007. This study is looking at fishing pressure, catch, harvest and the economic value of the fishery. On-the-water interviews, aerial angler counts and tagged fish studies are all part of this study.

Q: I understand the need for more studies but can’t something be done right now?

A: Doing “something” and doing the “right thing” aren’t always one and the same. For instance: if your car won’t start, changing the oil isn’t likely to help. Until you determine the underlying problem – dead battery, faulty starter, no gas, clogged fuel injector, worn electrical harnesses, etc – taking hasty actions may do more harm than good. Often, there is more than one factor at work. If your car battery is dead, that may be because your alternator isn’t charging it. Replacing the battery will help – but only for a few trips.

In order to make meaningful improvements to a fishery, the scientific process of exploration and evaluation must be followed. If management and regulatory changes are to be made, those changes should be based on the best information possible.

Q: Oh C’mon – that sounds like a bureaucratic answer if ever there was one. The Fish and Boat Commission is supposed to be about “Resource First.” DO SOMETHING!!!

A: Technically, that’s more a statement than a question – but it’s one that we’ve heard from time to time and deserves a response. First we understand the frustration anglers may have on this subject. As fisheries managers, we would love to identify a simple solution. Many of us on the Commission staff consider the Susquehanna our “home river” so our interest in sustaining a top-notch smallmouth bass fishery is motivated by both professional and personal desires. We also know that the current fisheries issues are part of a much larger set of challenges that face the river in general. It’s probably going to take a lot of effort (and money) – to address them. We also need to be mindful that some elements – spring rainfall, for example – are beyond anybody’s direct control. The fact that this fishery is so important to so many people – as evidenced by anglers’ demand to “do something” - is a good foundation for continuing to move this issue forward.

Q: OK. I can accept that. But wouldn’t restricting harvest of bass help things?

A: Remember: the section of the river that seems to be the area of greatest concern (Sunbury downstream to Maryland) is already managed under very conservative “Big Bass” regulations and angling is not believed to be a significant influence. No harvest is allowed for a two-month period that covers the bulk of the spawn and only two fish that are 18 inches or larger are allowed to be creeled for the majority of the year. Up to four fish of 15 inches or greater may be taken three and a half months of the year at a time when other waters allow up to six bass 12 inches or greater to be harvested.

The angler use study being conducted throughout 2007 on the lower Susquehanna and the Juniata River will give us much better data on the overall angler use and harvest, but preliminary returns don’t come close to suggesting angler harvest as being problematic. So to further regulations may only serve to unnecessarily restrict fishing while producing no meaningful improvements to the fishery itself.

Q: Wouldn’t limiting angler harvest altogether protect more of the big fish, leaving them in there to spawn and in doing so, improve spawn numbers?

A: It would seem like a logical approach – but unfortunately lots of research has indicated the abundance of spawning fish has no real bearing on individual year class strength. You can have lots of adult spawners, but if the conditions for egg and YOY survival are poor, year classes will be weak. Conversely, fisheries biologists have often seen fantastic year classes spawned by relatively few adults. While there is a relatively good correlation between year class strength and future adult fish, the reverse correlation simply doesn’t exist.

Q: So what’s next?

A: The Commission and its partners will continue to aggressively study river conditions and the fishery, exploring new data that may give us greater insight into this complex river situation. It’s unlikely that one single thing is the major culprit, but rather a culmination and/or interaction of multiple factors. River flow and consumption use of river water are obvious areas for additional exploration.

The presence of largemouth bass virus in the Susquehanna River is another area that merits additional exploration. While this disease does not cause mortality in any species other than largemouth bass, smallmouth have been identified as carriers. Could this disease be stressing young fish, thereby weakening them to other infections such as columnaris disease? This is another area of interest.

Others have pointed to an increase in fish-eating birds along the river – herons, cormorants, as well as an increasing density of large predatory fish such as walleye and flathead catfish. By themselves, these birds and fish may have a relatively minor impact, but taken in combination with many other factors may help us explain some of our observations.

The bottom line is that the Commission has every desire to manage the Susquehanna fishery so it meets its full potential and will continue to follow a well-reasoned, science based approach for resource protection and fisheries management. Most importantly we must all understand that some conditions may not be immediately controllable. We can not in a wholesale fashion change the environment (drought or extended warm weather periods) nor can we remove disease organisms. We also can’t remove suspected predators who may simply recolonize from other areas. With our partner agencies we plan to evaluate water quality or quantity issues that may influence levels of stress experienced by young smallmouth bass which may in turn influence the onset of disease and mortality in young bass.

Susquehanna Smallmouth Bass Management -- Black Bass

Posted on: 2008/8/12 2:49
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Re: Susky PFBC Q & A

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Good read. Thanks Fred.

That river can't catch a break.

Posted on: 2008/8/12 9:21


Re: Susky PFBC Q & A
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I'd call it a Looooong read.

It could have been shorter....like

Q. Whats wrong with the Susky?
A. Hell, we don't know.

Q. What are you doing about it?
A. Nuthin.

Q. Why not?
A. Well, we are studying the begeezes out of it. It's complicated, you wouldn't understand.

Q. Is the Susquehanna still a world class SMB Fishery?
A. NO.

Q. Will it be rebounding int he next 6 years?
A. NO.

Q. Is there any reason to use gas to drive to the river fro SMB?
A. No.

End of interview.

Posted on: 2008/8/12 10:00
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Re: Susky PFBC Q & A
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I like how they cite 1999 as the start of the lower than average year classes. Then they don't start studying the problem until 2005. They really sat up and took notice of that problem.

Posted on: 2008/8/12 11:10
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Re: Susky PFBC Q & A

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Quote:

Maurice wrote:
I'd call it a Looooong read.

It could have been shorter....like

Q. Whats wrong with the Susky?
A. Hell, we don't know.

Q. What are you doing about it?
A. Nuthin.

Q. Why not?
A. Well, we are studying the begeezes out of it. It's complicated, you wouldn't understand.

Q. Is the Susquehanna still a world class SMB Fishery?
A. NO.

Q. Will it be rebounding int he next 6 years?
A. NO.

Q. Is there any reason to use gas to drive to the river fro SMB?
A. No.

End of interview.


That sounds about right!

Posted on: 2008/8/12 13:09
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Re: Susky PFBC Q & A

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Here's another take.

Q. What's wrong with the Susque?

A. The river is now too polluted for smallmouth bass to thrive. When you have 2000 cows on a 150 acre farms, and similar huge concentrations of hogs and chickens on small acreages, with not enough land to absorb all that POOP, it goes into the water and the Susque down by Harrisburg becomes a wastewater ditch for the factory farms of PA rather than a living river.

Q. What is the PFBC going to do about it?

A. Not much. The agriculture lobby is a lot bigger and stronger than the clean water and fish lobby. If we make a lot of noise, certain legislators will threaten to eliminate the PFBC as an independent agency and fire us all and replace us with people who helped them get elected.

Posted on: 2008/8/12 14:49


Re: Susky PFBC Q & A
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In defense of the PFBC I would suggest that this really is a complex problem. While (in hindsight) they should have jumped on the problem sooner, nobody could have forseen in 1999 that the fishery was on the verge of collapse. Back in the 90s the river was in peak form. Studies indicated that the river was cleaner than it had been in decades and the new "big bass" regs were resulting in a lot more quality fish. Everyone was happy. Count me as in the group that doesn't know what to attribute the decline in bass population to. Sure, there were bad spawns (2003/2004 had floods) but some of those years had decent water levels and the spawns still failed. The columnaris infection may have been due to low, warm, water but we had a lot of that in the 80s and 90s and the fishing was fantastic. And why, if low water was to blame, were other rivers that were equally low not seeing the same skin infections? Cattle and hog farms? Easy culprit but there was a lot of farming in the 90s and the fishing was great. Outdated sewage treatment plants? Could be a problem but there's a lot of outdated sewage plants on other rivers and they haven't seen a bass collapse.
I'll be the first to admit that I don't have the answer for what the problem is on the lower Susky. Blaming the PFBC is easy.

Posted on: 2008/8/12 19:22


Re: Susky PFBC Q & A
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Fair enough but you are not charged with protecting the waterways of Pennsylvania.

Posted on: 2008/8/12 20:20
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Re: Susky PFBC Q & A

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Another recent article:

Sunday, August 10, 2008
By Ad Crable, Lancaster New Era
COLUMBIA, Pa. -- As trucks thundered across the Route 30 bridge above them, three men in chest waders quietly slipped into the Susquehanna and began jabbing the shoreline water with stunning bolts of electric current.

Momentarily dazed, fingerling fish bubbled up and were quickly netted, measured and scrutinized before being released.

Mike Kaufmann, the chief fisheries biologist in the southeastern area office of the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission, has been doing these summertime surveys of the lower river's juvenile smallmouth bass population since 1986.

Fish are electro-shocked in 300-meter sections along the shore where smallmouth fingerlings hang the first few months of their lives to avoid predators.

The Susquehanna and Juniata rivers were among the East's most prized smallmouth fisheries, and these young-of-the-year classes up and down the rivers were the same: healthy fish and plenty of them. It got so predictable that the surveys were suspended in 2004 and 2005.

But these are very different times on the rivers.

Mysterious fish kills of fingerling bass in 2005 and 2007, and the appearance of round sores like cigarette burns, have alarmed anglers and all who care about the river.

An unprecedented three-year, $378,000, multi-agency probe into what's happening to the fish and water quality has been launched.

Mr. Kaufmann and crew's sampling wades have taken on more earnest meaning.

The day before, the three-man team was buoyed by what it found along a 300-meter stretch of the river near Falmouth: 53 smallmouth fingerlings from this year. It was the highest concentration of young since 1999.

Equally good news was that only one of the fish exhibited any external health problems, a case of tail rot, caused by a fungus infection.

But as the three surveyors made their way along the banks on both sides of the Route 30 bridge, results were troubling.

Twenty-five fish were netted -- not a bad result in terms of numbers -- but eight had ugly white sores and another had tail rot. Moreover, two dead fish were found floating during the sweep and some of the fish that didn't exhibit sores were acting sluggish, suggesting they may be in the early stages of developing problems.

"Some of the fish died in our hands. They are probably diseased," Mr. Kaufmann said.

"It's really hard to tell what's going on. These are fish that have been in the water only weeks."

Similar surveys are being conducted up and down the Susquehanna between the New York and Maryland lines, as well as West Branch, and the Juniata.

It's too early to get a read on this year's population of young smallmouths and their health because survey results up and down the rivers are still coming in, said Bob Lorantas, the Fish and Boat Commission's warm-water unit leader.

"I've received some very good reports and some very so-so reports," he said.

The juvenile class this year will need four to six years to reach legal size of 15 inches.

On the plus side, water conditions were favorable during the spring spawn, there haven't been any sizable fish kills reported and, so far, the river has not slipped into the low levels and warm temperatures when fish are most susceptible to infections from bacteria always present in the water.

The Susquehanna River Water Quality Study, meanwhile, will attempt to determine if there are any pollution culprits out there. Juvenile surveys, such as the one done at Wrightsville, York County, may be helpful in ferreting out any localized problems, Mr. Lorantas said.

Meanwhile, "the river structure now is toward older fish," notes Mr. Kaufmann. Local guides report catching large fish, but the days of catching many are gone, at least for a few years.

Bob Clouser, the famed fly fisher in Middletown, reported catching only five fish in four nights recently while fishing the river's earlier-than-normal white fly hatch. It's a time when anglers used to be able to count on a fishing frenzy.

"The bass just aren't there," Mr. Clouser said disgustedly

Posted on: 2008/8/12 21:00
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Re: Susky PFBC Q & A

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Quote:

Cattle and hog farms? Easy culprit but there was a lot of farming in the 90s and the fishing was great. Outdated sewage treatment plants? Could be a problem but there's a lot of outdated sewage plants on other rivers and they haven't seen a bass collapse.


Sewage treatment has arguably gotten better over the years, though there are still serious problems.

But the really big change that has occurred in recent years is a really big growth in CAFOs (concentrated animal feeding operations).

There have been big chicken operations around for some years. But the growth of big hog CAFOs and really big dairy CAFOs is pretty recent.

The typical family dairy farm has had around 50 cows or so. An operation with 200 cows was considered a big one.

The CAFO type dairies now have 1600 to 2000 cows.

It's on a different scale altogether. There's just too much liquid manure being spread on too little acreage, and the excess just goes down the creeks and rivers.

The same thing with the big hog operations.

Posted on: 2008/8/12 21:53


Re: Susky PFBC Q & A

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The situation is sad and the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission's response is even worse.
Here is some data that some guys fought long and hard to get. It shows the results of the Commission's young of the year samplings over the past few years. I don't think much more can be said. AND 2007 was and 2008 is just as bad.

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Posted on: 2008/8/14 21:20
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Re: Susky PFBC Q & A

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Don't be so quick to blame sewage treatment. They are under high scutiny. I work in Utilities and one of my jobs is as a chemist for wastewater treatment. We just built a new state of the art teatment plant and the discharge permit is stricker than they expect for the water you drink. There is a reproductive trout stream running through the property and this is a HUGE facility with about 2000 employees. The fishies are fine.

What you have to watch for are small package plants that decide dumping Clorox on sample day is a good idea and if I had dollars to spend I'd collect samples from any industrial site 24-7. They know when to dump. When I worked for a drinking water company we had mercury level hits on the stream of 1ppb a mercury level that I used to calibrate my instrument. The sample site was below a film developing company.

Warm water runoff is as bad if not worse than other sources. Every parking lot is sending the potential for all sorts of fungus to get a foot hold. Warmer temps, less oxygen, stressed fish, more fungus!

Posted on: 2008/8/14 22:43


Re: Susky PFBC Q & A

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I totally agree with this statement.

CPR
Quote:
The situation is sad and the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission's response is even worse.


I was part of a club (now non-existant) that in 2004 was trying to raise awareness of this situation. The PFBC response was basically "We hope the weather will be better next year for the spawn." They didn't even want to look into the matter, and now it has come to bite them.

Posted on: 2008/8/15 11:20
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Re: Susky PFBC Q & A

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seems like the PFBC got complacent as well. Says in that article at the top that they stopped sampling in 2004 and 2005. Seems like they took for granted that it was a bountiful fishery and stopped paying attention. Once they did things got worse. Its a shame though, they gotta do something to fix that

Posted on: 2008/8/26 12:34






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