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Re: Acid Rain and Un-surveyed streams

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2006/9/10 21:53
From Greensburg, PA
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AMD:

Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) is produced when sulfide-bearing material is exposed to oxygen and water. The production of AMD usually – but not exclusively – occurs in iron sulfide-aggregated rocks. Although this process occurs naturally, mining can promote AMD generation simply through increasing the quantity of sulfides exposed. Naturally-occurring bacteria can accelerate AMD production by assisting in the breakdown of sulfide minerals.


AMD causes:

When mineral deposits that contain sulfides are mined, they have the potential to produce acid mine drainage. This includes the mining of coal, copper, gold, silver, zinc, lead, and uranium. The mineral pyrite, more commonly known as "fool's gold," is iron disulfide (FeS2). Pyrite is one of the most important sulfides found in the waste rock of mines. When exposed to water and oxygen, it can react to form sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The following oxidation and reduction reactions express the breakdown of pyrite that leads to acid mine drainage.

1. 2FeS2 + 7O2 + 2H2O -> 2FeSO4 + 2H2SO4

2. 2Fe2+ + 1/2 O2 + 2H+ -> 2Fe3+ + H2O

3. Fe3+ + 3H2O -> Fe(OH)3 + 3H+

4. FeS2 (s) + 15/4 O2 + 7/2 H2O <--> 4H+ + 2SO4- +Fe(OH)3 (s)

Production of acid mine drainage can occur long after mines have been abandoned if piles of waste rock are in contact with air and water. The red color often seen in streams receiving acid mine drainage is actually a stain on the rocks called "Yellow-Boy," or ferrous hydroxide (Fe(OH)3) formed during Reaction 3 above.

Acid Rain:

Acidic deposition, or acid rain as it is commonly known, occurs when emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and Ox-ides of nitrogen (NOx) react in the atmosphere with water, oxygen, and oxidants to form various acidic com-pounds. These compounds then fall to the earth in either dry form (such as gas and particles) or wet form (such as rain, snow, and fog). Prevailing winds transport the compounds, sometimes hundreds of miles, across state and national borders.

Acid rain causes:

Power plants, industrial manufacturing, and motor vehicles are all sources of pollutants that are ingredients of acid rain. These pollutants become part of the air masses circulating in the upper atmosphere, which flow predominately into the Northeast. The industrial Midwest is responsible for about half the sulfur dioxide emissions east of the Mississippi. The state of Ohio produces two times more tons of sulfur dioxide than all of New England, New York, and New Jersey put together. It is pollutants from these distant sources that contribute to damages in the Northeast environment.


These excerpts most accurately convey my understanding of these two different problems. I didn't look long...just for "quips" that felt I most agreed with.

So my question is ( and I kind of cruised thru most of this thread) what is the question? argument? disagreement here? And just in case Pat answers...give me the short version. I'm just passing thru.

Posted on: 2013/8/25 20:17


Re: Acid Rain and Un-surveyed streams

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2006/12/13 9:28
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Tom, the things you posted are consistent with what Pat, Chaz, and myself were saying. It also does not contradict the author in the OP. If by argument, you mean Dwight not accepting what we have been saying, it is restricted to the part that I highlighted in the text below. He doesn't believe this could happen in nature. Afterall, all things bad are man made, right?

It is a point not mentioned by said author and often overlooked. I only brought it up because one of the streams mentioned in the article reminded me of it. I have since grown to regret bringing it up. It distracted from the original point which is the larger problem in a large majority of cases.

Quote:

tomgamber wrote:
[i]AMD:

Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) is produced when sulfide-bearing material is exposed to oxygen and water. The production of AMD usually – but not exclusively – occurs in iron sulfide-aggregated rocks. Although this process occurs naturally, mining can promote AMD generation simply through increasing the quantity of sulfides exposed. Naturally-occurring bacteria can accelerate AMD production by assisting in the breakdown of sulfide minerals.



Things not being argued about in this thread are:

1. Disturbing the stuff through mining, drilling, or whatever exposes MUCH more of it. Orders of magnitude more.

2. Acid Rain is still a problem especially in areas that have very little to no buffering or are even somewhat acidic by nature. (see article.)

Posted on: 2013/8/26 6:14

Edited by FarmerDave on 2013/8/26 6:31:06
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Re: Acid Rain and Un-surveyed streams

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It does happen in nature...one of the other excerpts I read and I'll post it if I have time, referred to Acid Rock Discharge. Its is an ongoing process though and the stream would be acidic for a longer, in geological terms, period of time. It would not happen suddenly unless of natural erosion exposed a previously unexposed acidic formation and even that would slowly increase the streams acidity. It would be much more difficult to remedy if someone felt the need to do so. It may also be why some PA rook trout have a natural tolerance for a certain amount of acidity.

Posted on: 2013/8/26 8:06


Re: Acid Rain and Un-surveyed streams

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makes sense to me.

Posted on: 2013/8/26 8:25
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There are certain pursuits which, if not wholly poetic and true, do at least suggest a nobler and finer relation to nature than we know. The keeping of bees, for instance." -Henry David Thoreau--


Re: Acid Rain and Un-surveyed streams

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2006/12/14 20:18
From Central/Upstate New York (Clinton)
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I live in Central/Upstate, NY about 25 miles south of the Adirondack Mountains. Cornell University has been working for many years in the Adirondacks to try and get the PH in many streams raised. They too have been saying about the acid rains coming from factories across and along Lake Ontairo. I think it has just as much to do with all of the logging that went on here 100+ years ago. There is very little topsoil in the Adirondacks so therefor very little filtering can go on from the time the acidic rain hits the soil until it hits these small streams. Hopfully over time and as forests mature again they will be able to build up their own organic matter on the forest floor to help purify the acid rain. I am a golf course superintendent and I know from experience that turgrass prefer pH levels around 5.8 to 6.4 depending on the variety. Which is interesting to me that fish seem to prefer it around the same.


Posted on: 2013/9/13 15:03
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Re: Acid Rain and Un-surveyed streams
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2006/9/9 17:32
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Nice avatar yuh got there Matt.

Posted on: 2013/9/13 16:48


Re: Acid Rain and Un-surveyed streams

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...... Contributed to by China & India & etc. maybe.

Posted on: 2013/9/21 23:15


Re: Acid Rain and Un-surveyed streams

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2008/1/31 17:19
From Pretty much everywhere at some point, Thorndale today.
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I don't really know for sure, but regarding acid rain, I get the impression its much more local.

CO2 goes into the air and stays there. So it has plenty of time to circle the globe.

Sulfur compounds out of stacks? Not so much. Forms sulfuric acid and falls as rain within a couple of hundred miles.

Posted on: 2013/9/23 8:20



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